நண்பர் ஒருவர் வெளிநாட்டு ஆராய்ச்சிப் படிப்பு குறித்து மடலில் கேட்டிருந்தார். அடிக்கடி கேட்கப்படும் கேள்விக்குப் பதில் கீழே:
நண்பர்: எனக்கு ஒரு தகவல் வேணும்.. நீங்க ஆராய்ச்சி படிப்பு படிக்கிறீங்க இல்லையா, இதுக்கான செலவெல்லாம் எப்படி? – எல்லாமே உங்க கைக்காசா? இல்லை அரசாங்க / பல்கலைக்கழக உதவி ஏதாச்சும் இருக்கா? அப்படி அரசாங்க உதவி உண்டுன்னா, உங்க படிப்புக்கு மட்டுமே இருக்குமா? அல்லது மற்ற செலவுகளுக்கும் தருவாங்களா? அமெரிக்கா மாதிரி research assistant/ teaching assistant kind of வேலையும் செய்றீங்களா?
நான்: In Netherlands doing PhD is considered as job and they pay me for doing it and I am considered an employee of Leiden university and I get all employee benefits like bonus, holiday, sick leave, insurance etc., I don’t teach in the University or do part time work outside, though some other friends of mine do take practical classes few weeks a year and they don’t get paid for it separately. The monthly salary is all inclusive and i can manage my living expenses, go for trips and save something and send home some money too 🙂 there is no college or PhD fee. Full free.
My project is funded an association of companies which sponsor research. some PhD students get funding from government or university. depends on the university, project, boss..some who are not able to find sponsor for project just join the PhD and manage by doing part time work initially..and later the boss tries to give them some teaching assistantship and help him..or you can also write project proposals to funding agencies and try to get funding yourself..it works like that in Germany..mostly who come for PhD don come with their own money..its very expensive and also by the time you do PhD you are in the age to earn and help family..so no one comes without a solid funding..
My PhD time is for 4 years ..
நண்பர்: Is this the same for Research studies all over the world? Like say, India, Australia, etc?
நான்: it depends from country to country. In India university funding is almost zero except for premier institutes like IISc, IITs. If you have a very big sponsor company for your research project and if your boss is good then u might get 10,000-15, 000 Maximum depending on your project. I know many who do PhD in India with zero funding and own money or very minimal funding like 3,000-5,000 given by boss through research and teaching assistantship..indeed life will be pathetic 🙁 The next and common type of funding is by CSIR (Council of scientific and industrial research) or through department of science and technology of India..every year they conduct competitive exams to award research fellowship..If you clear that exam, then u can join research institute of your interest and Govt of India will pay you 10, 000-15,000 depending on your year of research..This is highly competitive as every year thousands take this test and only hundreds clear it. 4 years before this amount was a paltry 5,000 something and that’s one of the reasons why best minds in India don’t have research as first option..either they go to industry or if they are really passionate in science they leave abroad to do studies in good institutes with a chance of funding they deserve..those who are passionate on science and yet who can’t or don’t want to leave India for personal or ideological reasons continue to work in Indian institutes..Can’t go category include personal reasons like not having money to apply to foreign colleges, write / clear GRE, TOEFL etc, having to take care of family etc., Ideological reason mainly is patriotic. I myself spent almost a two lakhs, ma (by borrowing from friends) in writing GRE, TOEFL, applying for numerous colleges in US and Singapore, making travel arrangements.Those who can’t afford so much will have to decide otherwise.
In US, UK you can directly apply for PhD after B.Tech (u need to write TOEFL, GRE). Europe , Singapore, Australia would require a master before PhD..countries like Germany, Singapore even accept GATE instead of GRE. But clearing GRE is easier than clearing GATE (I failed both in GATE and CSIR entrance 🙂 Getting admission in Indian institutes like IISc are much tougher compared to abroad universities). US PhD is 5 years and the first years will automatically be considered Masters. If you clear masters then u proceed to PhD. You can also opt to leave just with masters. Getting admission even in renowned foreign universities is very easy provided u can self-sponsor..But they are very expensive..two years of master study would consume can even consume around 20 lakhs for living, school fee etc, Students with good financial background self-sponsor their fees and try to meet the ends by working part time..in most of the foreign countries you can manage your expenses with part time work..
One main reason why students opt to do research outside is the freedom your abroad bosses give (Many (Not all) Indian bosses suck – they treat you like maid servant, have lot of ego, push their ideas on you, sadistic, sarcastic, psychos, lazy, outdated, lot of institute politics – they do everything except research, some even ask the female students to sleep with them), global exposure (one can attend lot of conferences) and experience in research which is very important for a scientist, the chance to earn well, go around and enjoy, and your project will never stop for lack of funding..in India project funding is really stingy..India should spend at least 100 times more for research if we want to achieve anything..and 1000 times more for primary education 🙁
Joining European institutes may be the least costliest and straight way. If you could impress the professor with your previous works and a project proposal and if he is willing to take you, then everything is done. No competitive exams and applications and the process is quick. For other countries one may have to wait at least 6 months to 1 year before joining PhD as the admission process is cumbersome. If you want to get admission abroad, your work experience with a renowned professor in India helps. For this students, our classmates in B.Tech do almost a year of project work under them in various institutes in India. Recommendation letters from them really help a lot in getting admission. Also, if you do Masters outside India that drastically increases your scope for PhD admission and funding. Once you come out of India, its lot more easier to get admitted for higher studies, switch institutes than to try from India. many abroad institutes are not so confident or understanding about the Indian degree, education system except for the one from popular brands like IITs, IIsc. If you are already working well in an institute abroad getting admit for your girl friend or spouse in the same institute may be a lot more easier .
நண்பர்: I have heard that in US, you need to take up some job for supporting yourself.. even if project gets sponsored.. – ofcourse not sure 🙂
நான்: No need. The sponsorship is quite good and you don’t have to pay a single paise of fee for your PhD studies. Many of my friends, classmates who do PhD in US have complete fee waiver and get approximately 20, 000 USD per year as stipend which is quite a lot for a student to live happily.The stipend in Europe can range from 1000-1700 Euro per month depending on one’s year of study and you could very well save half that amount.
நண்பர்: And what about ragging and that sort of issues in these research studies?
நான்: Ragging-a? Hello, it is only in the first year of B.Tech and may be only in India only. They really treat the Masters and PhD students like gentlemen / Scientists. நமக்கு இவ்வளவு மரியாதையானு நாம தான் நெளிய வேண்டி இருக்கும் 🙂 If you had asked about racism it would have been a good question 🙂 in Netherlands, there is no visible racism and its really a friendly country. In most of the countries it may be hidden, subconscious and mostly severe against the blacks. When Europeans speak in local language during project, lunch, social meetings one might feel left out and you are bound to learn the local language sooner or later. PhD students are not seen as competitors while they are studying. But after study, the companies might want to employ the local person for logical or legal reasons. In Europe, they give first preference to locals, then to EU country citizens and then to outsiders. This is mandatory by law. Once you get a job and go up in the ladder you might see more effects of racism / preference for local in higher posts. You might be needed to be of exceptional merit for your nationality to override such biased situations.